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Answer        : Twentyfive years landing missionaries 1820 measure americanized.. ...sn82015418\1884\07\29\ed-1\seq-7\ocr.txt

i i r 1, THE PACIFIC COjOIEKCIAL ADVERTISER, JULY 29, 1884 I 4 t 1 : I If: 7 M h i . j; ! rJ I. ! ii n! i ! P r l j v : 5 . S Ii ? higher.

These old Hawaiian held land by about the ftame sort of tenure as the subjects Charles Le Gros and King Knut.
The King was a petty suzerain, in whom alone the allodium vested.
The chiefs held lands sub stantially in fief and for military ser Tice, while the common people were mere villeins and tenants at will.
Civilization made progress with the people as rapidly as it has with the Japanese.
In twentyfive years after the landing of the missionaries 1820 the whole people had, in a great measure, become Americanized.
With the great social revolution came the necessity for a change in the system of land tenure from the feudal system to the fee simple, with a second title.
Lands had alwajs been subdivided by metes and bounds from time im memorial, and their locations had, in the absence of the art of writing, been handed down by tradition indeed, but with an accuracy and rigor for which tradition is only an imperfect ex pression.
To make these titles, as defined in metes and bounds, subjects of Court record a survey was necessary.
It was undertaken, and carried forward on a scale commensurate with its im portance, and the Hawaiian Govern ment is to be congratulated in having secured for the work an administrator so able, faithful, and efiicient as Pro fessor xVlexander.
The survey of Oahu and Lanai, so far as the general map is concerned, is complete.
Maui is nearly finished.
Much has been done on Hawaii, but the end is so far away that some years must elapse before a good map is possible.
The survey of Kauai is bgun on the new system, but the map of that island now existing is a compilation from former surveys upon a less systematic plan.
Tlie Incline in Sugar.
Suar is at present the most down trodden lending article of large consump tion, as much so as coffee was eighteen months ago.
Lik the latter then, nobody wants to tonch angar now, unless he can not help doing bo.
At least, it is so on this sid of the water, and the possibility of a smart recovery in value seeius to bo farther off than ever.
The same feeling prevailed here with respect to coffee in October, 1SS2, but did not prevent the latter from advancing 50 per cent, within six months, because at that time the entire machinery upon the modern plan for setting a depressed article on its feet again was silently set in motion, syndicates were formed, the New York Coffee Ex change was gained, and a Brazilian deficit was dexterously magnified to give color to the great speculation for a rise. We point to this coffee movement, be cause the interests at stake in sugar are much greater thaji in coffee, and the capital at tho disposal of those who want sugar to advance is by far more consider able, so that all that is now wanted is to find a good pretext for putting the ball iu motion, and causing a notable rise in the value of sugar, which, since 1847, has never been so cheap.
On January, 3, 18S3, fair to good re fining Cuban muscovadoes commanded in the New York market GJc; on May D, 7 l8c; on July 2, G 11lCc; on January 2, 1SS4, C 1lCc; on March 4, 5 ll16c; on May 1, 5 olCe.
This shows that in less than thirteen months sugar declined between 29 and 30 per cm, or about two per cent per month, which is mornious in an article of such largo consumption, with good cereal and frnil crops during the year.
Sugar has, indeed, been de pressed to a point whicli invites specu lation, because ruling rates ruin the canesugar plauter and leaves the beet root cultivator up1 sugar maker barely whole, however economically he may manage.
When the best refined hard sugar goes begging in New York at 7c. a pound just at the opening oi the active sugarconsuming campaign, this great article, in which all Christendom is in terested, naturally deserves attention the more so as it is generally believed that it has touched bottom, especially iu view of the terrible state of affairs in Cuba, where all of the scourges of creation seem to have conspired to dishearten the un fortunate taxground planter. A financial and economical crisis of the worst kind, because both acute and latent, the precarious negro element rend ered mutinous by the lauding of filibus ters not easy caught, a deep political dis content, taxes which wring the last profit rom all classes, and a blundering ad ministration, corrupt at the core, and the whole rendered worse by a prolonged drouht, is the state of Cuba, with sugar prices as low almost as they were in 1847, when slavery flourished. We do not be lieve that this picture is overdrawn, if all that those now arriving from the island say is true.
Even when the late rebellion collapsed, Cuba was not so miserable, for, at least, there was hope in better times coming; now there is none that we know of.
And Cuba is the sugar producing country par excellence; no single country turns out as much in nor mal times, and we take 75 per cent of it, whether the crop is 450000 tons or 800, 000. If tectront sugar determines the value in Europe, Cuban sneurdeterniiues the value in

Copyright:   Library of Congress

Notes:         Text recreated from OCR scan.